Debra N. Stopforth

Author of Mary and the Woman of Samaria, a Parallel

Month: October 2016 (page 1 of 4)

Abaddon (Hebrew)/Apollyon (Greek)



Abaddon (Hebrew)/Apollyon (Greek)

And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. [Rev. 9:1 KJV]

How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! [KJV Isaiah 14:12]

“How you are fallen from heaven, O Day Star, son of Dawn! How you are cut down to the ground, you who laid the nations low! [Isa 14:12 RSV]

Origin of the Bible


Old Testament

How do we know the Bible has been kept in tact for over 2,000 years of copying? Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, our earliest Hebrew copy of the Old Testament was the Masoretic text, dating around 800 A.D. The Dead Sea Scrolls date to the time of Jesus and were copied by the Qumran community, a Jewish sect living around the Dead Sea. We also have the Septuagint which is a Greek translation of the Old Testament dating in the second century B.C. When we compare these texts which have an 800-1000 years gap between them we are amazed that 95% of the texts are identical with only minor variations and a few discrepancies.

New Testament

There are tens of thousands of manuscripts from the New Testament, in part or in whole, dating from the second century A.D. to the late fifteenth century, when the printing press was invented. These manuscripts have been found in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Turkey, Greece, and Italy, making collusion unlikely. The oldest manuscript, the John Rylands manuscript, has been dated to 125 A.D. and was found in Egypt, some distance from where the New Testament was originally composed in Asia Minor. Many early Christian papyri, discovered in 1935, have been dated to 150 A.D., and include the four gospels. The Papyrus Bodmer II, discovered in 1956, has been dated to 200 A.D., and contains 14 chapters and portions of the last seven chapters of the gospel of John. The Chester Beatty biblical papyri, discovered in 1931, has been dated to 200-250 A.D. and contains the Gospels, Acts, Paul’s Epistles, and Revelation. The number of manuscripts is extensive compared to other ancient historical writings, such as Caesar’s “Gallic Wars” (10 Greek manuscripts, the earliest 950 years after the original), the “Annals” of Tacitus (2 manuscripts, the earliest 950 years after the original), Livy (20 manuscripts, the earliest 350 years after the original), and Plato (7 manuscripts).

 Manuscript Evidence for Ancient Writings

Author Written Earliest Copy Time Span # Mss.
Caesar – Gaelic Wars 100-44 B.C. 900 A.D. 1,000 yrs 10
Plato 427-347 B.C. 900 A.D. 1,200 yrs 7
Thucydides 460-400 B.C. 900 A.D. 1,300 yrs 8
Tacitus 100 A.D. 1100 A.D. 1,000 yrs 20
Suetonius 75-160 A.D. 950 A.D. 800 yrs 8
Homer (Iliad) 900 B.C. 400 B.C. 500 yrs 643
New Testament 40-100 A.D. 125 A.D. 25-50 yrs 24,000

Breastplate and Urim and Thummim




Remember when Achan (means “trouble maker”) brought sin into the camp when he stole the gold and Babylonian garment, and other items from Jericho? God specifically told them that they were not to take any spoils. The following is how the priests would go about hearing from the Lord to find the truth of the matter.

Urim and Thummim:

“Urim” means lights, fire, flame.

“Thummim” means perfectness, completeness or uprightness.

Urim 7 times and Thummim 5 times = 12 times     12 for the 12 tribes of Israel!

  1. Exod 28:30.11 urim
  2. Lev 8:8.15 urim
  3. Num 27:21.19 urim
  4. Deut 33:8.11 urim
  5. 1Sam 28:6.18 urim
  6. Ezra 2:63.24 urim
  7. Neh 7:65.24 urim


  1. Exod 28:30.14 thummim
  2. Lev 8:8.18 thummim
  3. Deut 33:8.8 thummim
  4. Ezra 2:63.27 thummim
  5. Neh 7:65.26 thummim

Exodus 28

Breastplate: 12 stones for the 12 tribes of Israel

There was a pocket on the breastplate of judgment which held the urim and thummim.

Urim means lights, fire, flame.

Thummim means perfectness, completeness or uprightness

light and perfections; light and truth; manisfestation and truth;

a/k/a sacred lots.

Urim and thummim were 2 stones on one side was “yes” and the other side was “no”. When they both came up “yes” then God was saying “yes,” when they both came up “no” then God was saying “no,” when one came up “no” and one “yes,” then God wasn’t saying anything.

Casting of lots = urim and thummim

Breastplate of the High Priest

Exodus 28:17


1st Row – 1st – 3rd born

sardius – Reuben – blood red stone

topaz – Simeon – green and yellow

carbuncle – Levi – deep scarlet


2nd Row – 4th – 6th born

emerald – Judah – green

sapphire – Dan – clear blue

diamond – Napthali – clear

3rd Row – 7th – 9th born

liager – Gad – dull red or cinammon color

agate – Asher – mixture of white red yellow and green – the cheapest of all the stones on the breastplate

amethyst – Isachur – deep red and blue = makes the stone appear purple

4th Row – 10th – 12th born

beryl – Zebulyn – blue green

onyx – Joseph – many layers of many different colors

jasper – Benjamin – bright green spotted with red and yellow


Attached to the breastplate was a small pocket of which carried two stones of urim and thummim.

Proverbs 16:33 The lot is cast into the lap but the whole disposing of is of the Lord.

Reference to Urim and Thummim:

Proverbs 18:18 The lot causeth contentions to cease and parteth between the mighty.

The word lots means the word stone = reference to urim and thummim.

Numbers 27:21

The Materials in the Temple

The materials in the temple and even the colors used typified the Lord Jesus Christ.

The following is a list of the items and what each represents:

Item                                                       Represents

Gold                                                       Deity

Silver                                                     Redemption

Brass                                                     Judgment

Blue                                                       Heavenly nature

Purple                                                  Royalty

Scarlet                                                 Sacrifice

Wood (acacia)                                Humanity of Christ

Fine linen                                          Righteousness

Oil                                                         Holy Spirit

Rams’ skins                                      Atonement

Goats hair                                        Atonement

Badgers’ skins                               Humanity or outward

appearance of Christ







The interpretation of a text (as of the Bible) by reading into it one’s own ideas.

Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition

Earth Saved Through Righteousness


The earth can only be saved through righteousness.

The reason for nature’s destruction is because of our sin:

Hear the word of the Lord, ye children of Israel: for the LORD hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, because there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God in the land. By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery, they break out, and blood toucheth blood. Therefore shall the land mourn, and every one that dwelleth therein shall languish, with the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven; yea, the fishes of the sea also shall be taken away. Yet let no man strive, nor reprove another: for thy people are as they that strive with the priest. Therefore shalt thou fall in the day, and the prophet also shall fall with thee in the night, and I will destroy thy mother. My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children [Hosea 4:1-6 KJV].

Older posts